_________________
Mining _________________ _______ _____in Chocó____________________
 

The History of Mining in Chocó________________________

       

• 1500 a few traces of gold activities found, from pre-Colombian indigenous communities
• 1500-1600 Colonial Period. The Spanish manually extract the gold in Chocó and the Darien, using indigenous man power.
• 1600-1820 the extraction of gold intensified but this time using slaves brought over from Africa.
• 1820-1900 War of Independence. Colombia paid its debt to England in Gold. Manual and artisan mining remained.
• 1900-1980 Concessions given to foreign mining companies, for the extraction of gold, and platinum, using sweeps and heavy machinery. Environmental and Social destruction
• 1980- Today mechanised mid scale mining, developed in an informal manner, anti-ethnic, and illegal.
• 2000 – Initiation of the Certified Green Gold program, as an alternative way of promoting peace and biodiversity.
• 2004 – The internationally recognised Association for Responsible Mining was created, based on the experiences of the Green Gold project in Chocó, Colombia
 
The Consequences of Mechanised Mining
 

• Destruction of forests and soil.
• Considerable changes to the natural habitat.
• Water, air and earth contamination
• Migration, and destruction of species, due to the loss of natural habitat and devastation of the ecosystems.
• Loss of biodiversity and erosion
• Loss of land apt for agriculture
• Loss of food security
• Problems with public health
• Local population migration

 
             
Green Mining Techniques ____________________________
   
 
Mazamorreo (Panning techniques): A technique which involves getting the gravel from the riverbeds and the gravel banks of the river, used during summer periods.
Place of work Operation Equipment or tools Instructions
River or stream Washing Panning tray Wash the concentrated gravel in the panning tray
Selection Panning Tray Manually refine it through selecting sand
   
 
   

Zambullidero: A technique used in prolonged summer periods. The mine is located at the end of rivers. After successive immersions in the rivers and streams gravel containing minerals are extracted.

Place of work______

Operation

Equipment or tools

Instructions

River or stream

Immersion

Ballast(stone)

 

Reimmersion

Almocafre

Scraping of sand and fine gravel

Recollection

Panning Tray

Recollection of gravel crust

Washed

Panning Tray

The concentrated gravel is washed in the panning tray

Yield

Panning Tray

Gravel yield enriched with gold and platinum

 

Mining with Flow Water Method: A technique practiced in rainy seasons, using the water as a labour force. The water circulates through the narrow artificial canals, and small manmade dams. The sediments containing gold are extracted from the streambeds and washed in the dams

Place of work______

Operation

Equipment or tools

Instructions

Mine

Sedimentation

Dam

Through the use of metal grates they trap the metals that are going to stay

Separation of solids

Dam

Separate the coarser stones until you are only left with fine sand enriched with gold and platinum

Yield

Panning tray

Yield of gold and platinum enriched gravel

Wash

Panning tray

The concentrated fine gravel is washed in the panning trays

 

Hoyadero (Hole technique): Holes are excavated by hand with varying depths and widths however normally until the bedrock is reached.

Place of work______

Operation

Equipment or tools

Instructions

Mine, Well Shaft

Choose area

 

 

Elimination

Bar

They remove, pound and crush the different materials that appear in the bedrock/stratum

Excavation

Bar

The walls of the well (hoyo) a reinforced with wood

Drainage

Panning tray or motorised pump

The water used in the extraction is taken away from the hole, and anything found in it is considered to be of a lower value

Extraction

Panning tray

To reach the deposit takes a full days work